Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV: The Conquering Emperor (1)

Canberra, 28 June 2020 SETTING THE SCENE Akbar continued the policy followed by Biram Khan, of steady and ceaseless expeditions to expand the territorial spread of the Empire. Akbar is supposed to have said, as reported by Abul Fazl and quoted by Bamber Gascoigne in his book, The Great Mughals (page 72), ‘a monarch should […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section III An Emperor Emerges

Canberra, 14 June 2020 At the time of Biram Khan’s exile, Akbar held Punjab, the North-West Provinces and Gwalior and Ajmer to the west. To the east, his control extended only as far as Jaunpur, where a governor nominally accepting Mughal sovereignty, ruled. Benares, Bihar and Bengal were still under the control of princes and […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section II: The Regency Years

Crackenback, 08 June 2020 After the victory at Panipat, Akbar and Biram Khan marched directly from the battlefield to Delhi. Akbar still did not outwardly indicate the strength of character and resources of intellect that would become his predominant characteristics as he grew into manhood. It would seem that even his ‘guardian’ or ‘protector’ Biram […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section I: A Boy-King is Inaugurated

Canberra, 31 May 2020 About two months before his death, Humayun had made an unusually wise decision, which would have long-term implications for the future of the Mughal Empire in India: he made Biram Khan, whose steadfast loyalty and military leadership had been primarily instrumental in regaining the throne of Delhi for the Mughals, the […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section VII: Hindustan Regained

Canberra, 23 May 2020 Free of his rebellious brothers at last, Humyaun’s first thought was to expand his territorial holdings—he contemplated an invasion of Kashmir, the reason for which has never been well-established. However, he was dissuaded by his nobles who pointed him towards his inheritance in India. Humayun then moved along the River Kabul […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section VI: The Mughal Revival

Canberra, 16 May 2020 The exiled Humayun reached Shal on his way to find shelter in Kandahar, where he was informed that Askari was close at hand with a large force to apprehend him. Humayun changed his plans and decided to flee to the Persian border with his wife, while leaving behind his son and […]

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Indian History Part 80 – Humayun Section V: Interlude II: The Demise of the Sur Dynasty

Canberra, 09 May 2020 It is obvious that Sher Shah had not anticipated such a sudden death without warning, especially since he was in extremely good health. Therefore, although he had two sons, he had not yet nominated one of them as his successor. It fell to the senior Afghan nobles to choose the next […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section IV: Interlude – The Ambitious Sher Shah Sur

Canberra, 2 May 2020 [The description of the 15-year reign of the Sur dynasty, founded by Sher Shah after the defeat and flight of Humayun, is being included as two independent chapters within the section on Humayun. While Sher Shah and his successors did indeed rule North India during Humayun’s exile; neither did they leave […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section III: An Empire is Lost

Canberra, 27 April 2020 After having defeated and forced Humayun back to Agra, Sher Shah returned to Bengal and evicted the Mughal governor, Jahangir Kuli, installed by Humayun. Sher Shah knew for certain that he would have to fight Humayun again and therefore wanted to consolidate his territories as soon as possible. More importantly, he […]

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The Post Covid-19 World Order: Not Business as Usual

Canberra, 16 April 2020 Even before the Corona virus devastated many of the countries of the world, political thinkers had started to debate whether or not the world order that had held fast for the past five or six decades was changing. Further, there was also discussion regarding the inevitability of such a change taking […]

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