Indian History – Part 55 Khilji Militarism Section II: Ala ud-Din Khilji

  23 January 2017 Securing the Throne Immediately after the aged Jalal ud-Din was assassinated, Ala ud-Din was declared sultan in Kara-Manikpur. He had waded through blood to achieve his ambition of being the sultan. There is no doubt that he had displayed daring and dash in the conduct of the successful expedition to Devagiri. […]

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Indian History Part 55 Khilji Militarism Section I Ascent to Power

Canberra, 12 January 2016 Origins The ancestors of the Khilji clan (also spelt Khalji in a number of texts) had migrated from Turkistan along with the early movement of Turks towards the east from Central Asia. They had settled in the Helmand region of Afghanistan, staying there for over 200 years before moving further east. […]

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India: Seeking Its Place in the Sun

Canberra, 4 January 2017 India initiated an economic evolution in the 1990s, which gathered sufficient momentum to become a revolution that propelled India into the thick of international power play. The geo-politics and circumstances of international power balance are ever-changing and have their own ways of creating ups and downs that in turn revamp the […]

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Indian History Part 54 The Slave Dynasty Section VII: An Appraisal

  Canberra, 22 December 2016 Balban’s death created a power void in Delhi with no credible successor to fill the large shoes that he left behind. Balban had been an efficient and effective regent and then a monarch for a total of 40 years. In medieval politics, a powerful individual personality and force of character […]

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Indian History Part 54 The Slave Dynasty Section VI: Balban – The Sultan

  Canberra, 12 December 2016 Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah died in 1266 without a male heir and it was natural for Balban to assume the role of sovereign ruler. Since he had been shouldering the responsibility for the past 20 years. In any case, at that juncture there was no one in the royal family […]

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Indian History Part 54 The Slave Dynasty Section V From Confusion to Consolidation

  Canberra, 24 November 2016 The struggle between the crown and the nobles for wielding real power in the sultanate, which had started with the death of Iltutmish, became less pronounced with the installation of Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah on the throne. He was invited by the nobles to be the figurehead that they had […]

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Indian History Part 54 The Slave Dynasty Section IV: A Queen Reigns

  Canberra, 14 November 2016 Qutb ud-Din Aibak and Balban (not yet part of this narrative) were actual ‘ghulams’ or slaves who had been manumitted earlier to their becoming ruling monarchs. The rest of the sultans who ruled Delhi and are counted as belonging to the so-called ‘Slave Dynasty’ were never slaves, but born as […]

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Indian History Part 54 The Slave Dynasty Section III The Story of the Qutb Minar

Canberra, 30 October 2016 The name Qutb Minar in Delhi is spelt in many different ways: Qutub Minar, Qutab Minar, Kutub Minar, Kutb Minar and also as one word Qutubminar. This document will use the most common one, Qutb Minar. Ancient monuments provide the researcher with reliable information regarding the early conditions of a particular […]

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Indian History Part 54 The Slave Dynasty Section II Shams ud-Din Iltutmish

  Canberra, 12 October 2016 Qutb ud-Din Aibak’s untimely death caused a great deal of confusion amongst his followers. In Lahore, the officials placed his son Aram Shah on the throne, but the courtiers in Delhi refused to accept or support the new ruler. Aram Shah was generally considered to be weak, indecisive and unfit […]

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The Philippines – A New President Takes Over

Singapore, 04 October 2016 President Rodrigo Duterte took office as the President of the Philippines on 30 June 2016 after winning a landslide election victory. On the face of it, it would seem that he hit the ground running, putting in place vigorous programs to solve issues that he had identified during the election campaign. […]

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