Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section I: A Boy-King is Inaugurated

Canberra, 31 May 2020 About two months before his death, Humayun had made an unusually wise decision, which would have long-term implications for the future of the Mughal Empire in India: he made Biram Khan, whose steadfast loyalty and military leadership had been primarily instrumental in regaining the throne of Delhi for the Mughals, the […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section VII: Hindustan Regained

Canberra, 23 May 2020 Free of his rebellious brothers at last, Humyaun’s first thought was to expand his territorial holdings—he contemplated an invasion of Kashmir, the reason for which has never been well-established. However, he was dissuaded by his nobles who pointed him towards his inheritance in India. Humayun then moved along the River Kabul […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section VI: The Mughal Revival

Canberra, 16 May 2020 The exiled Humayun reached Shal on his way to find shelter in Kandahar, where he was informed that Askari was close at hand with a large force to apprehend him. Humayun changed his plans and decided to flee to the Persian border with his wife, while leaving behind his son and […]

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Indian History Part 80 – Humayun Section V: Interlude II: The Demise of the Sur Dynasty

Canberra, 09 May 2020 It is obvious that Sher Shah had not anticipated such a sudden death without warning, especially since he was in extremely good health. Therefore, although he had two sons, he had not yet nominated one of them as his successor. It fell to the senior Afghan nobles to choose the next […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section IV: Interlude – The Ambitious Sher Shah Sur

Canberra, 2 May 2020 [The description of the 15-year reign of the Sur dynasty, founded by Sher Shah after the defeat and flight of Humayun, is being included as two independent chapters within the section on Humayun. While Sher Shah and his successors did indeed rule North India during Humayun’s exile; neither did they leave […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section III: An Empire is Lost

Canberra, 27 April 2020 After having defeated and forced Humayun back to Agra, Sher Shah returned to Bengal and evicted the Mughal governor, Jahangir Kuli, installed by Humayun. Sher Shah knew for certain that he would have to fight Humayun again and therefore wanted to consolidate his territories as soon as possible. More importantly, he […]

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The Post Covid-19 World Order: Not Business as Usual

Canberra, 16 April 2020 Even before the Corona virus devastated many of the countries of the world, political thinkers had started to debate whether or not the world order that had held fast for the past five or six decades was changing. Further, there was also discussion regarding the inevitability of such a change taking […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section II: Trouble Brews in the East

Canberra, 12 April 2020 Although no material gains had been made in the campaign that he had mounted to Gujarat and Malwa, on his return to Agra Humayun celebrated his ‘victory’ with full-fledged revelry that lasted for nearly a year.  Meanwhile Afghan power was resurgent in Bihar, now under the able leadership of Sher Khan. […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun – The Sentimental Dreamer Section I: A Royal Inheritance

Canberra, 10 April 2020 On his deathbed, Babur introduced his eldest son Humayun as his successor to a specially convened council of nobles and ministers. He then went on to advise the prince, to whom he had bequeathed his kingdom, ‘do naught against your brothers, even though they may deserve it’, an instruction that the […]

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Indian History Part 79 Babur – First of the Great Mughals Section V: A Dynasty is Established

Canberra, 6 April 2020 On arrival at Agra, Babur was presented a magnificent diamond by Humayun his son, who had taken charge of the Lodi capital. The stone had been given to Humayun by the family of the Raja of Gwalior who had taken shelter in the Agra fort, since the Raja had died in […]

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