Indian History Part 81 Akbar – Section IV. The Conquering Emperor 4. Bihar and Bengal – Expanding to the East

Canberra, 1 August 2020, Saturday In ancient times, the region known as Bengal now was called Vanga and at times Gauda. Epigraphic records show that around 11th century, the region started to be mentioned as Vangala-desa, which in turn was further localised to ‘Bangal’ (Bengal) by Muslim invaders—a name that is still used today. Brief […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV: The Conquering Emperor; 3. The Gujarat Campaign

Canberra, 24 July 2020 Gujarat, situated to the south-west of the Mughal province of Malwa and shored by the Arabian Sea was a rich kingdom, mainly because of its seaports that facilitated a flourishing maritime trade. It was geographically large and consisted of the territories and districts of Surat, Broach, Kaira, Ahmedabad, large parts of […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV The Conquering Emperor 2. Rajputana – Triumph and Tragedy

Canberra, 12 July 2020 Akbar was now reasonably comfortable, the north-west was secure and the eastern borders were without any serious disturbances, although Bihar and Bengal remained outside his ambit. He now turned his attention to Rajputana, also referred to as Rajasthan, the largest part of Western India. (Although the exact geographical boundary of Rajputana […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV: The Conquering Emperor (1)

Canberra, 28 June 2020 SETTING THE SCENE Akbar continued the policy followed by Biram Khan, of steady and ceaseless expeditions to expand the territorial spread of the Empire. Akbar is supposed to have said, as reported by Abul Fazl and quoted by Bamber Gascoigne in his book, The Great Mughals (page 72), ‘a monarch should […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section III An Emperor Emerges

Canberra, 14 June 2020 At the time of Biram Khan’s exile, Akbar held Punjab, the North-West Provinces and Gwalior and Ajmer to the west. To the east, his control extended only as far as Jaunpur, where a governor nominally accepting Mughal sovereignty, ruled. Benares, Bihar and Bengal were still under the control of princes and […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section II: The Regency Years

Crackenback, 08 June 2020 After the victory at Panipat, Akbar and Biram Khan marched directly from the battlefield to Delhi. Akbar still did not outwardly indicate the strength of character and resources of intellect that would become his predominant characteristics as he grew into manhood. It would seem that even his ‘guardian’ or ‘protector’ Biram […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section I: A Boy-King is Inaugurated

Canberra, 31 May 2020 About two months before his death, Humayun had made an unusually wise decision, which would have long-term implications for the future of the Mughal Empire in India: he made Biram Khan, whose steadfast loyalty and military leadership had been primarily instrumental in regaining the throne of Delhi for the Mughals, the […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section VII: Hindustan Regained

Canberra, 23 May 2020 Free of his rebellious brothers at last, Humyaun’s first thought was to expand his territorial holdings—he contemplated an invasion of Kashmir, the reason for which has never been well-established. However, he was dissuaded by his nobles who pointed him towards his inheritance in India. Humayun then moved along the River Kabul […]

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Indian History Part 80 Humayun Section VI: The Mughal Revival

Canberra, 16 May 2020 The exiled Humayun reached Shal on his way to find shelter in Kandahar, where he was informed that Askari was close at hand with a large force to apprehend him. Humayun changed his plans and decided to flee to the Persian border with his wife, while leaving behind his son and […]

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Indian History Part 80 – Humayun Section V: Interlude II: The Demise of the Sur Dynasty

Canberra, 09 May 2020 It is obvious that Sher Shah had not anticipated such a sudden death without warning, especially since he was in extremely good health. Therefore, although he had two sons, he had not yet nominated one of them as his successor. It fell to the senior Afghan nobles to choose the next […]

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