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Indian History Part 61 The Dance of Religions; Section IV The Medieval Hindu Revival

Udaipur, India 2 January 2017  REFORM THROUGH BHAKTI At the time when the Islamic conquest of the sub-continent began in earnest, Hindu Brahmanism was fully established in India. All religious questioning and competition that had been posed by Buddhism and Jainism had been comprehensively removed. The most important socio-cultural event of the 14th and 15th […]

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Indian History Part 61 Section III: The Mingling Mysticism

Mumbai, 18 December 2017   In early 14th century the religious make up of India was gradually altering. Buddhism had almost vanished from the land of its birth; Jainism was confined to a narrow area in the west of the sub-continent; and Islam was in its infancy, spread across scattered settlements in North India and […]

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Indian History Part 61 Section II: Sufism in India During the Sultanate

Canberra, 15 December 2017   It may not be incorrect to state that a large number of Muslims, perhaps even the majority, have very limited understanding of the theological underpinnings of their faith. This reality was as true in medieval times as it is now, not only in the Indian sub-continent but also across all […]

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Indian History Part 61 The Dance of the Religions Section I: The Assiduous Power of Hinduism

Canberra, 10 December 2017   From the earliest times, Indian civilisation has flourished within the confines of a great social and religious system called Hinduism. Although Hinduism is now equated to a religion, it has always been, and continues to be, a system as old and unique as the civilisation that it nurtured. The initiation, […]

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Indian History Part 60 Section II The Caliphate and the Sultanate – Debating the Relationship

Canberra, 5 December 2014   The status of Delhi Sultanate vis-à-vis the Caliphate in Baghdad and the relationship that existed between the two continues to be open to a number of interpretations. Some of these interpretations are provided by few well-known historians, but with superficial proof and therefore do not stand the test of investigation. […]

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Indian History Part 60 The Encroaching Islamic Influence Section I Governance of the Sulatanate

Canberra, 24 November 2017 From its very beginning, the Delhi Sultanate was governed in accordance with the Islamic Law, as laid down in the Sharia. Even though there were few exceptions to the strict adherence to the laid down norms, successive Sultans largely followed the injunctions of the Sharia in the administration of their kingdom. […]

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Indian History Part 59 The Lodi Dynasty Section V IBRAHIM LODI: THE TWILIGHT SULTAN

Canberra, 19 November 2017   Sikandar Lodi had many sons, the eldest being Ibrahim Khan and the second Jalal Khan, both born to the same mother. They were also considered to be the most capable amongst the young princes. Ibrahim Khan has been described as intelligent, courageous, generous and the embodiment of praiseworthy moral qualities. […]

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Indian History Part 59 The Lodi Dynasty Section IV: Sikandar Lodi: An Appraisal

Singapore, 20 October 2017 SIKANDAR SHAH LODI: AN APPRAISAL Sikandar Lodi ruled with distinction and was undoubtedly the greatest of the Lodi kings. He extended the boundaries of the Sultanate in all directions and retrieved the still sagging prestige of the Sultanate. Sikandar wiped out all vestiges of the existence of the Jaunpur kingdom after […]

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Indian History Part 59 The Lodi Dynasty Section III Sikandar Lodi: Life and Times

Singapore, 19 October 2017 SIKANDAR SHAH LODI: LIFE AND TIMES Bahlul Lodi had nine sons, of whom the eldest Khwaja Bayezid has predeceased his father. Bahlul’s sudden death was seized as an opportunity by the Afghan nobles to push forward the claims of their favourite princes for succession. Before proceeding to Gwalior on his last […]

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Indian History Part 59 The Lodi Dynasty Section II Bahlul Lodi

Singapore, 18 October 2017  BAHLUL LODI: CHIEF AMONG EQUALS The Delhi Sultanate was on the verge of extinction when Alam Shah made known his decision to retire to Badaun. Under the leadership of Hamid Khan, the Prime Minster, the nobles of Delhi made a last ditch attempt to save the Sultanate and invited Bahlul Lodi […]

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