Tag Archives: Mughal Empire

Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section VI: The Warrior-Monarch

Canberra, 5 September 2020 There is no doubt that Akbar was a rare man—he combined many virtues that together make a ‘good’ human being and he was someone of stature who would stand out from the ordinary at all times. He was also a man of contradictions; he was personally brave to a fault, impetuous […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Sect V: An Unsavoury End

Canberra, 22 August 2020 By the turn of the century, around 1600, Akbar had acquired the aura of a superhuman hero, invincible in all respects. His only worry was the behaviour of his eldest son and presumed successor, Prince Salim. In 1600, Salim was 31 years old and had waited patiently to become king and […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Sect IV The Conquering Emperor 6. The North-West and the Deccan

Canberra, 22 August 2020 Even when the rebellion in Bengal was raging without an end in sight, and it was thought that the East would be lost to the Empire, Akbar did not march to Bengal. Though all his military instincts—which were highly developed—prompted him to rush to the East, he held back, for the […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV: The Conquering Emperor 5. Annexation of Kashmir

Canberra, 16 August 2020 Kashmir, the mountain kingdom resting partially on the Himalayas and flowing into its foothills, had always been a difficult place to invade and capture from the outside. Its natural ramparts had been instrumental in Kashmir preserving its independence for centuries, even when great empires had come knocking on its borders. The […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar – Section IV. The Conquering Emperor 4. Bihar and Bengal – Expanding to the East

Canberra, 1 August 2020, Saturday In ancient times, the region known as Bengal now was called Vanga and at times Gauda. Epigraphic records show that around 11th century, the region started to be mentioned as Vangala-desa, which in turn was further localised to ‘Bangal’ (Bengal) by Muslim invaders—a name that is still used today. Brief […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV: The Conquering Emperor; 3. The Gujarat Campaign

Canberra, 24 July 2020 Gujarat, situated to the south-west of the Mughal province of Malwa and shored by the Arabian Sea was a rich kingdom, mainly because of its seaports that facilitated a flourishing maritime trade. It was geographically large and consisted of the territories and districts of Surat, Broach, Kaira, Ahmedabad, large parts of […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV The Conquering Emperor 2. Rajputana – Triumph and Tragedy

Canberra, 12 July 2020 Akbar was now reasonably comfortable, the north-west was secure and the eastern borders were without any serious disturbances, although Bihar and Bengal remained outside his ambit. He now turned his attention to Rajputana, also referred to as Rajasthan, the largest part of Western India. (Although the exact geographical boundary of Rajputana […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section IV: The Conquering Emperor (1)

Canberra, 28 June 2020 SETTING THE SCENE Akbar continued the policy followed by Biram Khan, of steady and ceaseless expeditions to expand the territorial spread of the Empire. Akbar is supposed to have said, as reported by Abul Fazl and quoted by Bamber Gascoigne in his book, The Great Mughals (page 72), ‘a monarch should […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section III An Emperor Emerges

Canberra, 14 June 2020 At the time of Biram Khan’s exile, Akbar held Punjab, the North-West Provinces and Gwalior and Ajmer to the west. To the east, his control extended only as far as Jaunpur, where a governor nominally accepting Mughal sovereignty, ruled. Benares, Bihar and Bengal were still under the control of princes and […]

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Indian History Part 81 Akbar Section II: The Regency Years

Crackenback, 08 June 2020 After the victory at Panipat, Akbar and Biram Khan marched directly from the battlefield to Delhi. Akbar still did not outwardly indicate the strength of character and resources of intellect that would become his predominant characteristics as he grew into manhood. It would seem that even his ‘guardian’ or ‘protector’ Biram […]

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