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Indian History Part 56 The Tughluq Dynasty Section V: Firuz Shah Tughluq – A Man of Peace

  Canberra, 27 June 2017 As Muhammad Tughluq lay terminally ill, anxiety about dynastic succession was sweeping through the sultanate as Muhammad did not leave any male offspring to succeed him and no heir apparent had been nominated. Further, the Imperial Army was at that time stationed near Tattah, thousands of miles from Delhi. When […]

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Indian History Part 56 The Tughluq Dynasty Section IV Muhammad Tughluq: Ill-Starred Dreamer

 Canberra, 8 June 2017   Muhammad Tughluq was unquestionably the ablest, purely in terms of qualifications, of the crowned heads of medieval times. He was learned and accomplished; endowed with a marvellous memory and keen intellect; and possessed an extremely versatile mind with an enormous capacity to assimilate knowledge. Muhammad was a lover of the […]

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Indian History Part 56 The Tughluq Dynasty Section III Muhammad Tughluq: Revolts, Rebellions and Military Expeditions

  Canberra, 28 May 2017 The entire reign of Muhammad Tughluq was plagued by rebellions and revolts in different parts of the kingdom, even though he had ascended the throne without any contest. Very early in his rule, his own nephew Baha ud-Din Gurshasp who held the fief of Sagar near Gulbarga in the Deccan, […]

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Indian History Part 56 Section II Muhammad Tughluq: The Impatient Administrator

  Canberra, 14 May 2017 Three days after the death of Ghiyas ud-Din, Jauna Ulugh Khan the designated crown prince, ascended the throne assuming the title Muhammad Tughluq. In various chronicles he has also been named Muhammad bin Tughluq and Muhammad Shah. Muhammad bin Tughluq would mean the son of Tughluq that in turn would […]

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Indian History Part 56 Section I: Ghiyas ud-Din Tughluq Shah

Canberra, 22 April 2017 Ghiyas ud-Din’s accession to the throne calmed the paroxysm that had become commonplace in the sultanate from the last days of Ala ud-Din’s rule. Ghiyas had come up from humble origins—his father was a Qaraunah Turk and mother a Jat lady. The Qaraunah were a clan of the broader Mongol tribes […]

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Indian History Part 55 Section V: Ala ud-Din The Only Khilji that Mattered

Canberra, 09 April 2017 Irrespective of the despotism, as well as the chaos and confusion that had become part of the last years of his reign, a thoughtful retrospective of Ala ud-Din Khilji’s rule is necessary to understand the important contribution that he made towards expanding and perpetuating Muslim rule in the sub-continent. Although he […]

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Indian History Part 55 Khilji Militarism Section IV: Demise of the Dynasty

Canberra, 1 April 2017   Ala ud-Din was bedridden suffering from acute oedema and becoming increasingly petulant and impulsive. The political edifice that he had so painstakingly built up, with personal hard work and a visionary approach to the task of governance, started to crumble in front of his eyes. The Delhi court became the […]

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Indian History Part 55 Khilji Militarism Section IV: Demise of The Dynasty

Canberra, 01 April 2017   Ala ud-Din was bedridden suffering from acute oedema and becoming increasingly petulant and impulsive. The political edifice that he had so painstakingly built up, with personal hard work and a visionary approach to the task of governance, started to crumble in front of his eyes. The Delhi court became the […]

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Indian History Part 55 Khilji Militarism Section III Peninsular Conquest

Canberra, 21 March 2017    Once the north and central region had been secured, the pathway to the southern peninsula was open for the Turkish army to sally forth. Ala ud-Din now gave full attention to fulfilling his expansionist ambitions. It is highly unlikely that a person with Ala ud-Din’s character would have forgotten his […]

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Part 55 KHILJI MILITARISM Section III Ala ud-Din Khilji – Military Conquests

Canberra, 12 March 2017   In medieval times a kingdom’s foreign policy was inextricably intertwined with both offensive and defensive military expeditions. This was the universal truth. Ala ud-Din was one of the most ambitious rulers to have sat on the throne of Delhi. Therefore, it is not surprising that after successfully establishing himself as […]

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